QUANTUM HISTORY AT A GLANCE -

100 YEARS 

                               
     

 

  

“There is no doubt that the stage that quantum physics has reached is beyond the grasp of even its creators.”

[Max Planck, 1935]

 

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“At present, the theory is more intelligent than us. It knows why it works, we don't.”

[Max Born, 1940]

 

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“What does not satisfy me in that theory, from the standpoint of principle, is its attitude towards that which appears to me to be the programmatic aim of all physics: the complete description of any (individual) real situation as it is supposedly exists independent of any act of observation or substantiation.”

[Albert Einstein, 1949]

 

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“It is probably justified in requiring a transformation of the image of the real world as it has been constructed in the last 300 years... [for] now it seems to work no longer. One must therefore go back 300 years and reflect on how one could have proceeded differently at that time, and how the whole subsequent development would then be modified. No wonder that puts us into boundless confusion!” 

[Erwin Schrödinger, creator of the modern (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics, to Albert Einstein, 1950]

 

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“I think it is safe to say no one understands quantum mechanics...Do not keep saying to yourself, if you can possibly avoid it, "But how can it be like that?" because you will get down the drain into a blind alley from which nobody has yet escaped. Nobody knows how it can be like that.”

[Richard P. Feynman, 1965]

 

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“The interpretation of the [quantum] formalism, is today, almost half a century after the advent of the theory, still an issue of unprecedented dissension. In fact, it is by far the most controversial problem of current research in the foundations of physics...” 

[Max Jammer, 1974]

 

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“Quantum theory, that strange thing we all know how to use, but understand very little.”

[Murray Gell-Mann, 1979]

 

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“The mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics was far quicker and easier to establish than a full understanding of the physical essence of the quantum phenomena. Indeed, a full physical understanding is not yet in hand, even now.” 

[Braginsky et al, 1992]

 

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“Why the quantum? After 100 years, we still do not know.”

[John A. Wheeler, 2000]

 

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“Physicists today are in a similar conundrum with quantum theory as those who were at the 1911 [Solvay] meeting.”

[Prof. R. Kollosh, Stanford University, 2005]

 

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“Physicists are [still] in a period of utter confusion.”

[David Gross, Nobel Laureate, 2005]

 

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